Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ethanol Extract of Xylopia aethiopica Fruit on Oxidative Stress Indices of Wistar Rats

Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Uloaku Ogbuagu, Augustine I. Airaodion, Chika L. Uche, Edmund O. Ezirim, Ifeoma N. Nweke, Prince C. Unekwe

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 40-51

Background: The use of Xylopia aethiopica fruit in folklore medicine is on the increase without caution of its toxicity.

Aim: This present study tends to assess its effect on the oxidative stress biomarkers of Wistar rats.

Methodology: The fruits of Xylopia aethiopica were air-dried and extracted by Soxhlet extractor using ethanol as solvent. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was assessed using standard method. Thirty adult Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. Animals in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were treated with 130, 259, 389 and 518 mg/kg body weight of X. aethiopica fruit extract respectively, while those in group 5 received normal animal feeds and water only. The administration was done once daily for 28 days via oral route. Oxidative stress indices were measured using standard methods.

Results: A significant decline was observed in the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) activities in experimental animals compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). In the same vein, a significant reduction was observed in the concentration of reduced glutathione in experimental animals compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). Lipid peroxidation was however observed to increase when experimental animals were compared with those in the control group. The elevation in lipid peroxidation was significantly different when animals treated with higher doses of 259, 389 and 518 mg/kg body weight of extract were compared with those in the control group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The adverse perturbation of antioxidant indices by Xylopia aethiopica fruit is suggestive that it could induce oxidative stress and thus unhinged the immune system. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in several diseases thus the consumption of Xylopia aethiopica fruit as well as its use in folklore medicine should be discouraged especially in high doses due to its toxic nature.

Open Access Review Article

A Multimodal Strategic Approach to Integrative Oncology

Jesse A. Stoff

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-39


The term “integrative oncology” can mean particular things to different audiences. For the purposes of this article, I intend it to mean the simultaneous use of multiple anti-cancer strategies that can have a synergistic effect against the tumor, its microenvironment, and its propensity to metastasize. Thereby, having a maximum impact against the cancer with a minimum of side effects for the patient to endure. As noted in the references, this paper briefly describes the five prevailing evidence-based systematic approaches in use today. Each of these approaches has varying degrees of effectiveness which, in my experience, when clinically integrated, produces exponentially better efficacy, hence shifting progression-free survival into the possibility of increased overall survival and a durable remission. This paper is an attempt to offer some perspective of how to apply these disparate methodologies so that they may be more effectively integrated, resulting in consistently better clinical responses.