Open Access Minireview Article

Inequalities in COVID-19 Vaccination; a Call for Global Community Concern

Jefferson Asare Danquah, Albert Opoku, Thomas Boansi Gyamerah, Monica Pili Bernard, Prince Twene, Rebecca Kuma

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-6

Introduction: Universal and global accessibility to COVID-19 vaccination is a vital tool for the reduction in the rate of infection, the severity of symptoms, the occurrence of death, and the acquiring of herd immunity. This is the major strategy in the reduction of the global socio-economic effects aimed by all counties. To bring this pandemic to an end, a large share of the world needs to be immune to the COVID-19 virus. The safest way to achieve this is with equal access and distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine through global cooperation.

Objectives: The objective of this article was to review literature to raise the awares globally to enure that all nations whether rich or poor get vaccination for COVID 19.

Conclusion: The debate about the global plan for ensuring equal access to vaccines should include people of all race, socioeconomic, geographical, and political trend to achieve desirable success.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trends and Socio-demographic Distribution of Immunological Diseases in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Adedeji Okikiade, Ikeokwu Anderson, Twanna Browne-Caesar, Kevin Brown, Rebecca Lawrence, Daniel E. Osieme, O. Funmilayo Janet

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 7-24

Background: More than 100 human diseases are due at least in part to an inappropriate immune system response that results in damage to an individual’s organs, tissues, or cells. Immunological diseases can affect any part of the body, and have myriad clinical manifestations that can be difficult to diagnose. At the same time, immunological diseases share many features related to their onset and progression. In addition, overlapping genetic traits enhance susceptibility to many of the diseases, so that a patient may suffer from more than one immunological disorder, or multiple immunological diseases may occur in the same family.

Aim: The study aims is to explore the trends and Socio-demographic distribution of Immunological diseases in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines from 2014-2018 in Milton Cato Memorial Hospital Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, including temporal trends and variations in age and sex from 2014 to 2018 by using routinely collected administrative health data/patient records.

Methods: From 2014 to 2018, individuals with immunological diseases were identified from the hospital records of Milton Cato Memorial Hospital, which records information on all patient coming in for healthcare services. A structured data extraction tool was employed to extract the data from the hospital record using the open data kit (ODK). Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 and R Studio statistical software for analysis. The Chi-square test was used to test for association. All statistical tests were two-tailed and Level of Confidence was set at 95%, and P values < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

Results: The mean age of patient with SLE was 35.65 ± 21.16 yrs. old and the median Age was 34 years old, almost two-third 218(62.6%) were females. Yearly, women showed a significantly higher incidence of immunological disease than men except in 2017 where the incidence for males were slightly higher than that of the females, there was an annual decrease in the incidence from 2014 to 2018, with a peak incidence in 2016 (0.94/1000 person-years). The lowest incidence was noted in 2018 (0.17/1000 person-years). Among sex, there was an annual decrease in the incidence from 2014 to 2018, with a peak incidence in 2014 for male (0.71/1000 person-years) and in 2016 for females (1.34/1000 person-years). The lowest incidence was noted in 2018 (0.14/1000 person-years) and (0.20/1000 person-years) for both male and female respectively.

Conclusions: The study showed that the incidence of immunological disease, Type 1 diabetes Mellitus Myopathy/Myositis and SLE in Saint Vincent have decreased in the last decade, whereas the mortality rates of both SLE and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus have increased. This finding of increased mortality of SLE and T1D suggests that this disease is no longer rare and will have implications for future healthcare planning. Age and sex were found to be risk factors for SLE. Our data confirmed the known predilection of SLE in women. The peak age of diagnosis is middle age, contrary to the generally held belief that lupus mainly targets young people.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fermented Apple Juice by Two Commercial Lactobacillus species: Changes of Physicochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity

Wen-Sheng Yan, Yu-Ru Guo, Huan-Yang Li, Jian-Guo Xu

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 33-43

The present study was aimed to compare the changes of physiochemical composition, antioxidant activities of fermented apple juice with non-fermented apple juice by two commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus casei CICC 20975 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus CICC 21101. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by three systems including DPPH, ABTS free radical scavenging methods and Fe3+ reducing power. The results showed that fermentation significantly increased the content of total phenols in apple juice (P<0.05). After fermentation, all malic acid was converted into lactic acid during fermentation with the lactic acid content up to 381.78 mg/kg. Free proline 21.55 mg/kg and lysine 21.99 mg/kg were also significantly increased. Similarly, fermented apple juice showed significantly higher antioxidant activities when compared to non-fermented apple juice. The scavenging activity of DPPH, ABTS free radical and the reducing power of Fe3+ in fermented apple juice increased by 22.4%, 35.0%, 9.7%, respectively. In conclusion, fermented apple juice by two commercial lactic acid bacteria (L. casei CICC 20975 and L. bulgaricus CICC 21101) exhibited a more satisfied property and possessed great application potentials.

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID-19 and Actor Well-being: A Serial Mediated Moderation of Mask Usage and Personal Health Engagement

Addo Prince Clement, Gumah Bernard, Ato Kwamena Sagoe, Ohemeng Asare Andy, Kulbo Nora Bakabbey, Takyi Nyankom Lydia, Kulbo Bassamar Dora

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 44-53

Wearing of face mask has become the new norm and a requirement for accessing public spaces. The current study explored the drives of self-regulation towards the purchase and use of face masks for actor wellbeing and public safety. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey approach. Data from 1859 participants sampled specifically from lockdown areas are the backbone of this study. We drew inspiration from the self-regulation theory and the trending slogan "any mask is better than no mask" to propose a model based on the fear of COVID-19 and actor wellbeing. We adopted Hayes' PROCESS macro in analyzing the proposed model. The findings confirmed that the fear of COVID-19 (β=.78, p<.001) invokes actors' self-regulation and alters attitudes (β=.521 p<.001) to drives mask purchase intentions and use significantly. We also re-echoed the role of self-efficacy in the behavioral change decision-making under threatening conditions. The models explained a total variance of 80% in explaining how the fear of COVID-1D invokes an individual's behavioral change towards public safety and actor wellbeing. Policymakers, wellbeing psychologists, and healthcare practitioners can leverage the finding in this work to understand the antecedents that promote people's behavioral change towards psychological and physical wellbeing, such as that which come with COVID-19 and mask use. In particular, face mask advocates can leverage this paper's fear and wellbeing understanding in their promotional and educational exercises. We recommend reconsidering mask use protocols to support the slogan "Any Mask is Better Than No Mask."

Open Access Review Article

Advances and Challenges in Transmission-Blocking Malaria Vaccine Development. A Systematic Review

Laura Nyawira Wangai, Shadrack Kimenju Kahiro, Kenny Kimani Kamau, David Waweru Nderu, Immaculate Marwa Nyaiseba, David Butto Amarch, Mark Kilongosi Webale, Elly Munde

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 25-32

Malaria continues to cause enormous human suffering throughout most of the tropics and subtropics. In sub-Saharan Africa alone, it is estimated that about two million children die each year due to malaria. Vector control and malaria chemotherapy strategies that were previously effective in controlling and treating malaria, respectively, are now largely ineffective owing to the spread of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes and drug-resistant parasites. A vaccine targeting the sexual stages of the parasite and block transmission is needed to reinforce current malaria control and eradication efforts. Here, we review the status of malaria transmission-blocking vaccines. We focused on the efficacy, progress and development challenges of transmission-blocking vaccines. Pfs25 and Pfs48/45 are essentially the lead-candidates malaria transmission-blocking vaccine and should be studied further in clinical trials. Our review highlights the need to develop novel malaria elimination interventions, particularly an effective malaria vaccine with transmission-blocking activity.