Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus among Women of Child-Bearing Age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Iheanyi O. Okonko, Onyekachi L. Udo, Tochi I. Cookey, Chisom C. Adim

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-7

Aim: Hepatitis B virus among women of child bearing age is a major determinant of perinatal hepatitis B transmission. The risk of developing liver-related complications, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinomas increases as patient progresses from acute to chronic stage of the infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV among women of child bearing age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between June 2012 and July 2015.

Methods: A total of 89 women of child bearing age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria (ages 15-45 years) were screened for the presence of HBsAg. The presence of HBV was determined using third-generation enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Bio-Rad, France).

Results: The results showed an overall HBsAg prevalence of 12.4%. Married women (14.3%) were found to be more infected with the highest prevalence rate recorded among the non-students (14.6%) and those within the 25-45 years age group (14%).

Conclusion: This study has shown that the prevalence of HBV among women of child-bearing age is high. Health education on the possible mode of transmission and the introduction of routine screening of women in health facilities will grossly help in reducing the rate of infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Secretor Status of ABH Substances and HIV 1& 2 P24 Antigen Screening Status Amongst Eligible Blood Donors with Previously Screened HIV 1& 2 Antibody- Negative Status in Calabar, Nigeria

Forwah Jacques Ndeh, Ebot Walter Ojong, Immaculate Ihuoma Ekeagba

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 20-35

Aims: New hypotheses suggest non-secretors may be less vulnerable to the HIV infection than secretors.  Association between secretor status and HIV P24 antigen status was studied in 400 HIV antibody sero-negative   prospective blood donors aged above 20 years of both genders recruited within Calabar, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: About  3 ml of saliva and 5ml of blood samples  were  analyzed  for HIV  antibodies  using Stat Pak (by Chembio Diagnostic System International), Determine (by Inverness Medical Japan Cooperation, Limited), Unigold (by Trinity Biotech, USA) rapid test Kits  and  antigens  using HIV P24 antigens Combi test Kits (by Inverness Medical Japan Cooperation, Limited) respectively.  Secretor Status done using Anti-H Lectin reagent by BIOTEC Laboratories Limited, UK.

Results: Out of 400 samples, 80 (20%) were non-secretors and 320(80%) secretors. while 6(8.1%) non-secretor  and 9(2.9%) secretor samples  reacted to  HIV P24  antigen screening test. Chi-Square (X2=5.655, P=0.025) showed significant difference between secretor and non-secretors based on   gender. No significant difference exits between HIV p24 antigen status and secretor status (chi squared X2 =0.007, P =0.9) and   secretor status and the three HIV Antibody test kits (F -ratio = 1.7997, P =0.307)

Conclusion: No significant association found between secretor status and HIV P24 antigen status but detectable P24 antigens were more in secretors than non-secretos.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Rotavirus in Children with Diarrhea Attending Hospitals in Nasarawa State as a Case Study

B. A. Ajide, A. A. Sobayo, O. I. Kanyi

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 36-46

Aims: This study is aimed to determine the prevalence of Rotavirus among infants and young children that have gastroenteritis attending two Hospitals in Nasarawa State as a case study.

Study Design: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study was used in this study, and demographic data was obtained using questionnaire.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Science, Bingham University Karu, Nasarawa State, between May 2019 and July 2019.

Methodology: 200 children of age 0-10 with gastroenteritis were included in the study. Stool samples were collected aseptically in a lick proof universal container and samples were screened for Rotavirus using faecal antigen Rotavirus EIA cassette kit according to the manufacture’s manual. The statistical analysis was done using the chi-square test (X2) to determine the relationship between prevalence of Rotavirus and possible risk factors at 95% confident interval.

Results: The prevalence rate of 8.5% was recorded. Children within the age group 0-3 had the highest frequency of 10.7% than other age groups. It was also observed that the infection was more predominant in males than in females, with an incidence of 8.5% and 8.4% respectively, although this was not statistically significant since P-value >0.05. Also children of parents with informal education had a higher frequency of 14.5% than children of parents with formal education (4.8%) and this was statistically significant with P-value <0.05 showing a relation with the prevalence of Rotavirus. The infection was observed to have a high prevalence of 12.3% in children that were still breastfeeding. Incidence of the infection in children that use toys was 11.3% with the P-value <0.05 and was statistically significant with the infection. A prevalence of 12.5% was recorded in children that use potty as against other toilet types. A frequency of 9.2% was observed in children that used antibiotics, although this was not statistically significant with P-value >0.05. Children that had not been vaccinated for the infection had the highest frequency of 8.9% with P-value >0.05.

Conclusion: The detection of Rotavirus in children stool samples within the selected study location is a wakeup call and a fact that gastroenteritis is not only caused by bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of FCR Polymorphism in Children Endemic Population of Burkina and Effect of this Polymorphism on IgG and his Subclass Production

Mariama Kaba Combasseré-Cherif, Fatimata Thiombiano, Boubacar Maiga, Daniel Amoako-Sakyi, Romaric Nebnoma Tiendrébeogo, Amagana Dolo, Sodiomon B. Sirima, Issa Nébié, Marita Troye-Blomberg

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 47-56

Aims: Malaria is one of disease which caused many deaths every year. Many studies try to understand why since it apparition, malaria is still endemic in certain regions. It appear that some FCR polymorphism may impact on susceptibility to malaria. The present study aimed to determine the distribution of certain FCR polymorphism and their effect on antibodies production.

Study Design: Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out at Saponé.

Place and Duration of Study: Sampling was done at Saponé during low (January 2007) and high (September 2007) malaria transmissions seasons and laboratories activities were done at the department of Molecular Biosciences, the Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden. Methodology: During each cross-sectional survey, 5 ml of venous blood in a tube containing EDTA was collected from each child for antibodies assessment by ELISA and FCR genotyping by PCR. Thick and thin blood films were also prepared from finger prick for microscopy diagnosis of malaria.

Results: 622 children from Mossi tribes participated in this study. Three mutants allele were present in pupation with Frequencies of the mutant alleles of FCGR2C (rs3933769), FCGR3A (rs396991) and FCGR2B (rs1050519) 15.43%, 66.24% and 37.94% respectively. Regarding the SNPs, they are contribute to malaria pathogenesis. Carriers of the mutant allele of FcγRIIB (rs1050519) harboured more parasites than the parasites harboured by non-carriers (P=.002). However, the mutant alleles of FCγRIIC (rs3933769) and FCγRIIIA (rs396991) harboured less parasite than wild alleles (P=.001) for all of them.  SNPs are associated to total IgG responses. The   FCγRIIB (rs 1050519) SNP (permutation of G to T) was negatively associated with IgG responses.  Children with allele GG (Wild type) produced more antibodies against MSP3 than children with GT (Heterozygous) and TT (Mutant). The difference was statically significant (P= 0.05). However the FcRIIB mutation was positively associated with cytophilic IgG production against MSP2B, GLURP R0 and GLURP R2. The difference was statistically significant for MSP2A (P<0.001).

Conclusion: FCR2b, FCR2c and FCR3a are present in or study population. Malaria antibodies seem to be affected by FCR mutations.

Open Access Review Article

Prevention, Possible Treatment and Control of Corona Virus (SARS-CoV-2)

Md. Mahmudul Islam Khan, Lincon Chandra Shill, Nafisa Habib Purba, Moumita Chakma, Vulon Prosad, Ahmedur Rahman Rumel

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 8-19

Present days world is facing a great challenge to stop a pandemic outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which is caused by SARS-CoV-2. This was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei, China in December 2019, and it spread rapidly across the world, resulting in the World Health Organization announcing a global health emergency on 30 January 2020.  Currently, there is no registered treatment or vaccine for the disease. In the absence of a specific treatment for this novel virus, there is an urgent need to find an alternative solution to prevent and control the replication and spread of the virus. In this situation, we should follow some guidelines or suggestions provided by the renowned health sector such as WHO. First, to increase our immunity, we have to take nutrition supplement or foods which contain immunity enhancer vitamins and minerals. Second, to control this pandemic we should practice good personal hygiene. And if we are affected, we should take some medicine as the doctor’s guideline. In this article, we summarize the possible prevention, treatment and control measures of this pandemic.