Open Access Minireview Article

Discussion on the Concept of Immunity and How Human Body System Could Build Immunity against COVID 19 and It Relevance to Public Health Education

Albert Opoku, Joana Owusu Danso, Olivia Nyarko Mensah, Nicholas Amoah Owusu, Prince Twene, Jefferson Asare Dankwa, Andrews Owusu

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-5

The aim of this article is to explain different types of immunity and discuss how the human body could build immunity against COVID 19. This would also serve as a guide for public health education on immunity in this era of COVID 19 pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Rubella Specific IgM Antibodies among Expectant Mothers in Two Tertiary Hospitals in Rivers state, Nigeria

C. C. Adim, N. N. Odu, T. Sampson, L. O. Amadi, I. O. Okonko

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 6-13

Aim: Rubella virus screening in pregnancy has not been recommended during antenatal clinic days in Nigeria and most African countries. However, Rubella virus has been widely accepted as one of the viral aetiology of congenital transmission. Circulation of Rubella virus in the environment would increase the risk of maternal infection and possibly, congenital rubella syndrome. This study aims to determine the population of pregnant women, who are anti-Rubella virus IgM seropositive, thus understanding the burden of acute Rubella infections circulating in Rivers State.

Methods: Two hundred and seventy sera from the pregnant women were screened by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Rubella virus IgM antibody. These pregnant women were attending antenatal clinics of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) and Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, both in Rivers State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect participants’ sociodemographic data.

Results: A total of 44 out of 270 (16.3%) subjects were anti- Rubella virus IgM positive and 226 out of 270 (83.7%) were negative. There was no significant difference between IgM seropositivity and age groups, education level, gestation stage and parity. However, there was a statistical association of seropositivity rates with respect to location and occupation.

Conclusion: Findings from our evaluation indicated that many pregnant women were anti-Rubella IgM seropositive, hence the cases of acute infection were relatively high. This condition poses danger to their unborn fetuses in the absence of appropriate preventive measures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immunological Response to Recombinant Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Vaccine among Vaccinated Adults in Kaduna South, Nigeria

Salama K. Ibrahim, Yetunde Faidero Isa, Hosea S. Hamafyelto, Lohya Nimzing, Zakka Sheyin

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 14-20

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the rate of immunological response to recombinant Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccine among vaccinated residents of Kaduna South Senatorial district.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 180 consented residents of Kaduna South Senatorial district, Kaduna State who have been vaccinated with HBV vaccines. Systematic sampling technique and written informed consent were used in recruiting subjects for this study. Five (5mls) of venous blood was collected from each subject after filling a structured questionnaire. Sera obtained from 180 subject were qualitatively assayed for HBV markers using SkyTech profile and quantitatively tested for Anti-HBs using ELISA KIT (Enzyme Linked Immunoassay for qualitative and quantitative determination of antibodies to Hepatitis B surface Antigen by DIA.PRO in Italy). The results from the laboratory analysis of the specimens were computed using SPSS version 21.

Results: The results represent 51.7% seropositive of HBsAb among subjects with male having 18.9% and female had 32.8% which statistically showed no significant difference between the groups (χ2 =3.612,P = .43) see Table 1 .In respect to age, 26 – 30years age grouped had the highest sero-conversion rate of 10.0%. This however, was not statistically significant (Table 2) (χ2=5.604, P = .70). For the number of vaccine shots (Table 3) taken, 40.6% of those who completed their vaccination were sero-converted followed by those who took two shots with 4.4% while those who had one shot had 6.7% HBsAb (χ2 =30.665, P< .001).  Sero-conversion in relation to the quantity of HBV vaccine with titre values of ≥100IU/ml had 34.6%while ≤ 100IU/ml had 16.1% respectively. The result therefore showed statistically significant difference to the quantity of the vaccine administered at χ2 = 6.98, P = .08. In Table 4.

Conclusion: The findings in the research show that none of the subjects tested positive for Hepatitis B envelope Antigen or Hepatitis B envelop antibody. This could due to prior resolved HBV infection before the onset of vaccination or a resolved HBV infection mid-way into the vaccination process. Low sero-conversion rate was observed which could be due to the inclusion of subjects who failed to complete their vaccination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Moringa oleifera Root Bark Extract against Some Pathogenic Organisms

Emmanuel K. Amanze, Ugonna D. Nwankpa, Chinedu E. Udekwu, Henry N. Ogbonna, Chibuzo V. Nwokafor, Chukwuma G. Udensi

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 21-27

Aim: The study is aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera root bark extract against pathogenic organisms.

Method: The antibacterial activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera root bark was investigated against test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) using agar well diffusion method. Different extracts were prepared at different concentrations (200 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 12.5 mg/ml and 6.25 mg/ml).

Results: The methanol extracts showed a higher zone of inhibition than the aqueous extracts at all the extract concentrations and on both test organisms. Also, the observed antibacterial activity was dose-dependent for both extract methods.

Conclusion: The present work showed that Moringa oleifera root bark has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli suggesting its potential as an antibacterial agent against infections caused by the organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between the Levels of Anti Cyclic Citrullinated Protein Antibodies Type2 (ACPA2) and the Severity of Erosive Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

M. Jnad, K. Aldou, H. Yazaji

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 28-33

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic disease, characterized by autoimmunity. One of the most specific and important diagnostic and prognostic markers of RA are antibodies, Anti Cyclic Citrullinated Protein Antibodies (ACPA).

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between ACPA (Anti-CCP) levels and radiological damage.

Methods: An observational Cross-sectional study included 54 patients fulfilling the ACR-EULAR 2010 criteria for RA, with minimum disease duration of 1 year. Radiographs were scored using a modified Sharp score (Van der Heijde modification of Sharp's score 1989). ACPA levels were determined using immunofluorescence assay.

Results: ACPA levels were strongly associated with radiographic severity and there was a significant relationship between ACPA levels and total Sharp score (p=0.0001).

Conclusion: This study concluded that ACPA is an independent severity factor for RA, and our data supports the association between ACPA and radiographic severity.