Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Neuropharmacological Effects of Flemingia stricta (Roxb.) Leaves

Md. Shahrear Biozid, Mohammad Nazmul Alam, Md. Jainul Abeden, Md. Masudur Rahman, Md. Rafikul Islam

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-9

Background: Traditional preparation of the leaf of Flemingia stricta (Fabaceae) Roxb. , a medicinal plant of the Indian subcontinent, has been used for the treatment of different diseases as a herbal preparation. Our purpose was to analyze the neuropharmacological effects of different chemical extracts of Flemingia stricta Roxb. in mice.

Methods: In present study, the anxiogenic activity of crude extracts of Flemingia stricta leaves was determined using standard animal behavioral models, such as hole cross and open field; Sedative and anxiolytic potential were evaluated by performing thiopental sodium induced sleeping times tests and elevated plus maze test respectively.

Results: The crude extracts at the doses of 200 and 400mg/Kg exhibited a significant dose-dependent suppression of movement of mice in both open field and hole cross test. In the anxiolytic and sedative study, extracts displayed an increased percentage of entry of mice into open arm at both doses which are 200 and 400mg/Kg. Plant extracts produced a significant increase in sleeping duration and reduction of onset of sleep compared to control at the both doses of 200 and 400 mg/Kg.

Conclusion: This study clearly showed that the treated extracts have promising anxiolytic and sedative effect. Further studies on the prime constituent of this plant extract may provide lead compound in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Rubella IgG and IgM Antibodies among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria

Richard Yomi Akele, Baget Nerat Pam, Bernard Oluwapelumi Oluboyo, Seyi Samson Enitan, Janet Funmilayo Akinseye, Funmilayo Ajoke Adewumi

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 27-35

Aim: Though Rubella is vaccine-preventable and enlisted on the expanded program on immunization (EPI) list, vaccination and testing are not routinely practiced in Ido-Ekiti. There is also paucity of epidemiological data on the prevalence of rubella infection at Ido-Ekiti, hence the study aimed at carrying out a serosurvey to generate epidemiological data for this location.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between October 2018 and January 2019 at the Antenatal Clinic of Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti (FETHI), Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Methodology: One hundred and eighty four consenting pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at FETHI were enrolled. Structured questionnaire was administered to collect Sociodemographic data and sera samples were also collected to determine seroprevalence of rubella IgG and IgM antibodies using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Prevalence rate was calculated and chi square value was determined.

Results: Of the 184 sera samples analyzed 176 (95.7%) and 22 (12%) were seropositive for rubella IgG and IgM respectively. Twenty (11%) of those seropositive for IgM were also positive for IgG and only 2(1%) were positive only for IgM. Prevalence rate for IgG was highest among 26-30years (98.3%) and 31-35years (18.8%) for IgM. Age had no-significant effect (p> 0.05) on seroprevalence distribution. In like manner, level of formal education, knowledge of the virus, and occupation had no significant effect (p> 0.05) on prevalence of the virus. However parity significantly (p< 0.05) influenced the pattern of serostatus for both IgG and IgM.

Conclusion: The high prevalence and similar distribution pattern irrespective of sociodemographic features of rubella virus in this study area suggests its endermicity and continuous transmission in the area. This emphasizes the need to implement routine immunization of children and susceptible women of child bearing age against rubella virus.

Open Access Review Article

Stem Cell Therapy in Treatment of Non-communicable Diseases: Possibilities and Challenges

Nahian Rahman, Mussamat Mahbuba Sultana, Marium Sultana, Susmita Ghosh, Urme Mostary, Priya Saha, Md. Ruhul Kabir

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 10-18

Over recent years stem cells have stood out as a promising tool for regenerative medicine, providing alternative therapeutic solutions for many non-communicable diseases. Many clinical trials using stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells are focused on the refit and regeneration of various tissues and organs in degenerative diseases, whose current treatment only succeeds in delay down the progression of the disease. This review summarizes several current clinical and nonclinical information on the use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in various diseases. The aim of this review was to expand on the background and therapeutic potential of ESCs, MSCs and IPSCs whilst linking this to their use within disease therapy with a specific focus on diabetes, kidney disease and cardiovascular disease with future possibilities and challenges. Also aimed to explain the benefits of transplantation with side effects shortly after transplant and later and interruptions, possibilities and challenges of transplantation.

Open Access Review Article

Novel Coronavirus COVID-19: A General Overview for Emergency Clinicians and Current Scenario

Md. Bashir Alam

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 19-26

A cluster of pneumonia cases linked to the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) were announced by China at the end of December 2019. The current global situation, recent trends and ongoing progress in the containment and control of this epidemic, which has now spread 187 countries across the globe. A novel coronavirus virus (2019-nCov) has emerged in China, posing an International Public Health Emergency in a few weeks, and has recently become a very high-risk group by the World Health Organization (WHO). A third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale corona virus disease in humans was the SARS- CoV-2 outbreak as a result of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012. This virus was named Coronavirus-2 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) by the International Committee on Virus Taxonomy (ICTV) and Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) disease. Clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue, and a small number of patients with signs of gastrointestinal infection. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are particularly pathogenic in humans and are associated with high mortality. In this review, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, transmission, and clinical characteristics, and discussed current treatment and scientific developments and management of the recently discovered COVID-19 are reviewed, with a focus on best practices and the public health complications.

Open Access Review Article

TNF-α, TNF Receptors and Their Complex Implications in Therapy

Brian Mark Churchill, Pallavi Patri, Rashna Cama, Jula K. Inrig

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 36-50

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), also called cachectin or cachexin, is a naturally occurring cytokine produced by activated macrophages and monocytes, and to a smaller scale by T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, fibroblasts and astrocytes. It has both inflammatory and immunomodulatory roles effectuated through its action on tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (TNFR2). TNF-α overexpression (especially of TNFR1 mediated actions) or under expression (especially of TNFR2 mediated actions) may contribute to several diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and juvenile inflammatory arthritis. Several anti-TNF therapies are proven to be beneficial in these diseases, including etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab.

Biological responses of TNF-α include inflammation, apoptosis, immunomodulation, tissue repair, antiviral and antitumor activity and mediation of endotoxin-induced septic shock, recruitment of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes to sites of infection; and cell activation through action on different receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2).

Low grade chronic inflammation occurs in several other diseases including atherosclerosis, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis. Researchers have explored whether anti-TNF therapies can be helpful in these diseases too. Both positive and negative effects of anti-TNF therapies have been observed in these diseases. These observations suggest that TNF-α and TNF receptors system have an incredibly complex pathophysiologic role, and hence blockade of this pathway results in complex effects on different organ systems. In this review we have explored the myriad effects on various organ systems due to TNF blockade, including COVID-19.