Open Access Short Communication

Polyphenol and Flavonoids Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Solvent Extracts from Artemisia argyi

Dong-Qin Wang, Jing Yang, Jianguo Xu

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 30-35

The effects of extraction solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether and n-hexane) on the content of total polyphenols and flavonoids, as well as antioxidant activities of Artemisia argyi were investigated. The results showed that, the ethanol extract had the highest total polyphenols and flavonoids content, and it exhibited stronger antioxidant activities, followed by methanol and acetone extracts. Correlation analysis revealed that the content of phytochemicals was well correlated with antioxidant activities of extracts from Artemisia argyi, which indicates that different solvents had a great influence on the level of total polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activities of extracts. Therefore, selective extraction from Artemisia argyi, by an appropriate solvent, is important for obtaining fractions with high antioxidant activity, which will be useful for the developing and application of Artemisia argyi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neutrophils’ Phagocytic Function of Hepatitis B Virus Infected Pregnant Women, Attending Specialist Hospital Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria

C. O. Onwuliri, C. C. Onyenekwe, M. H. Yeldu, A. A. Panti, A. B. Shuaibu, M. Kalgo

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-8

Hepatitis B virus is the causative agent of hepatitis B infection. The virus is a major public health crisis in sub-Saharan Africa with high burden of morbidity and mortality. Vertical transmission is a significant contributor of new cases. This study was designed to access the innate immune competence of Hepatitis B viral infected pregnant women using neutrophil phagocytic function. In this cross sectional comparative observational study, simple random sampling technique was applied. A total of 100 Hepatitis B infected pregnant women and 100 controls were recruited. The data obtained were analysed using SPSS (version 23) software. A P probability value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed that proportion of phagocytic function was significantly lower (p < 0.05) for HBV infected subjects compared with control. The findings also revealed that trimester does not influence the percentage neutrophil phagocytic function. Conclusively Hepatitis B infection affects innate immunity. Pregnant women should be screened for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) during routine Antenatal clinic and drugs should be recommended for Hepatitis B infected pregnant women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Report on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Malaria among People Living with HIV/AIDS within Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria

O. T. Makwe, V. U. Obisike, O. Amali, G. N. Imandeh

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 9-14

This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and malaria among people living with HIV/AIDS within Makurdi metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria. Four hundred (400) blood and stool samples of people living with HIV/AIDS were collected from 45 NAF Base Hospital and Bishop Murray Hospital, Makurdi and examined for intestinal parasites and malaria infections between the months of September and December 2014. Formal-ether concentration technique was used for the stool examination; the thick film was prepared for blood examinations. The most prevalent parasitic infections found was malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) (46.0%).This was followed by Taenasis (Taenia solium) (13.0%), Amoebasis (Entamoeba histolytica) (8.0%) and hookworm disease (4.0%). The result shows that the age groups1– 10 and 11– 20 years had the highest prevalence of malaria and intestinal parasites (93.0%) each. While 51– 60 years had the least prevalence of malaria and intestinal parasites (50.0%). Chi-square analysis showed that there was significant differences in the distribution of intestinal parasite and malaria by age (χ2 Cal= 120.835 df 6, p˂0.05).Chi-square test also revealed that there was significant differences between the infections in male and female individuals (χ2 Cal= 36.288df 60, P˂0.05 and χ2 Cal= 67.924df 60, P˂0.05) respectively. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite and malaria is high among people living with HIV/AIDS within Makurdi Metropolis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Effects of Turmeric Extract against CCL4 Induced Liver and Kidney Injury in Adult Wistar Rat

E. U. Eric, E. Adolphus

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 36-42

Objectives: To examine and ascertain the toxic effects of CCL4 on the histology of the liver and kidney and to investigate the ameliorative of turmeric against his injury.

Materials: Thirty (30) male adult Wistar rats weighing 150 ± 2.6 g - 317 ± 3.5 g were procured from the animal house of the Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences Niger Delta University, Bayelsa state. Nigeria, assigned into five (5) major groups with five (5) animals in each group after the period of acclimatization: a control group "A" and three test groups (C, D and E) except group B with ten (10) rats. Animals in Group A (Control): received pelleted growers mash (feed) and water .Group B (Positive Control): Received CCl4 only (0.5 mL/100 g). Group C: received CCL4 (0.5 mL/100 g) and turmeric extract 200 mg/kg. Group D: Received 200 mg/kg of turmeric extract  and then treated with  CCL4 (0.5 ml/100 g ) Group E: Received  200 mg/kg of turmeric extract only, at the end of the treatment, the liver and the kidney of each  sacrificed rat were  processed for paraffin sectioning and stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin.

Result: Photomicrograph of Groups B, C and D show moderate inflammatory cells and fat infiltration which are features  of  hepatic injury but the result further shows that there were no noticeable histopathological changes observed in the histology of the kidney of all animal groups as compared with the control group.

Conclusion: The study demonstrates that turmeric extract has no ameliorative effect against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats.

Open Access Review Article

Structure and Function of COVID-19 Encode Proteins in the Transcription and Replication Mechanism with Its Preventive Measures and Propose Efficacy Treatments: A Critical Systematic Review

Oguh C. E., Obiwulu E. N. O., Oniwon W. O., Okekeaji U., Ugwu C. V., Umezinwa O. J., Osuji C. A.

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 15-29

The sudden occurrence outbreak of coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a serious harm worldwide and local economies. Due to high numbers of infection and death, the pandemic calls for an urgent demand of active, effective, affordable and available drugs to control and diminish the pandemic.  Coronavirus disease 2019 is a public health unexpected and sudden crisis which required action of international concern. At present there is no generally recognized effective pharmaceutical treatment to the disease, although it is to a great extent for patient contracting the severe form of the disease. The development of new strategies to prevent or control the spread of COVID-19 infections and the understanding of the virus replication, and pathogenesis required immediate action. Therefore, this systematic review was to investigate the biochemical effect of the virus in human, symptoms, prevention, statistics cases and summarize the evidence regarding chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19.