The cutaneous myiasis has been rarely reported in Saudi Arabia. We intended to describe here a case of furuncular cutaneous myiasis caused by Cordylobia anthropophaga larvae in infant from south area in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. A female infant, 17-day-old, had lived with her family in area closed to animal houses. Physical examinations showed 2 tender erythematous nodules with small central ulceration on the infant back and hand. During investigation, 2 larvae came out from the lesion. C. anthropophaga was identified by paired mouth hooks (toothed, spade-like, oral hooks) and 2 posterior spiracles, which lack a distinct chitinous rim. Although rarely described in Saudi Arabia until now, cutaneous myiasis should be expected in people living nearby such livestock, with flies and poor hygienic conditions.
Immune systems are responsible for the body’s protection against invading foreign agents that could bring harm to normal cellular activities. Viral infection is one of the significant foreign attacks on the body and the immune system has developed key mechanisms to contain such attack. The recent pandemic of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has stimulated studies on antiviral response with much emphasis on the Corona viruses. This disease caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) has been shown to have evolved with mechanisms to evade the normal immune responses. As such, this review therefore critically apprised recent literature on mechanisms of antiviral responses emphasizing on the Coronaviruses particularly the SARS-COV-2.The paper also highlighted the current situation regarding studies to find cure and vaccine development against the COVID-19.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and gained world-wide attention as a result of acute respiratory illness due to a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), traditionally known as COVID-19. On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially announced the outbreak of COVID-19 a public health emergency of international concern.A third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale coronavirus disease in humans was the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak as a result of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012. Medical signs of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, exhaustion and a limited number of patients with signs of gastrointestinal infection. Elderly and people with underlying diseases are susceptible to infection and prone to adverse results that could be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. There are currently few specific antiviral approaches available but many effective antiviral and repurposed drug candidates are under urgent investigation. The aim of this review was to summarize the recent medical advancement of COVID-19's epidemiology, transmission, and clinical characteristics, and discussed current treatment and scientific developments to fight the novel coronavirus outbreak.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading reason for liver transplantation in the world; patients infected with HCV are at increased risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. The study was aimed at evaluating the seroprevalence of Hepatitis C virus infection amongst febrile patients attending selected public and private hospitals in Lagos state, Nigeria. The hospital based cross-sectional study took place between October and December 2019. A total of 89 blood samples were collected from febrile patients after informed consent and self-administered questionnaires were completed. The samples were centrifuged, and screened for anti-HCV antibodies using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The results of this study were analysed statistically and out of the 89participants screened, only 5(5.61%) were positive for anti-HCV Ab. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the number of male and female patients positive and also other demographic characterization (age and temperature).
An exceptional role in protecting against pathogenic effects of various pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms is played by immunoglobulins of the main classes. As our studies showed, before treatment, the IgG content in patients did not differ significantly from the control. The average IgA level in patients of both groups before surgery was slightly reduced (P> 0.05). Given the important role of IgA in protecting the body and, above all, the mucous membranes from infection, it can be concluded that such a disturbance of the biosynthesis of this class of immunoglobulin may be one of the reasons for the decrease in immune reactivity and frequent infectious processes. A sharp increase in serum IgE levels (239 ± 19.1 IU/ml) was observed in patients with eosinophilic polyposis rhinosinusitis, which we associate with an increase in IL-4 content and increased allergization of the body. This relative difference between patients of the two groups proves the need for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of chronic polyposis of rhinosinusitis. The aim of our research work was study allergically and immunologically results in patients with polipoidrhinosinusitis.