Open Access Original Research Article

High Rates of Birth Defects in Fallujah, Iraq: Radiological and Chemical Pollution of the Affected Children and their Parents

Samira Telfah Abdulghani Alaani, Mohammad Tafash, Abdulkadir Abdulkareem Murie, Allawi Muhyee Al-Esawi

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-10

Background: Lack of birth registers hindered knowledge of the frequency of birth defects (BD) in Fallujah, Iraq and comparison of changes in prevalence in time. One study found correlation between BD presentation and teratogenic metal load [1].

Methods: We obtained reproductive history, kin health, environmental exposure and historical residence of families. Hair was sampled from the nape of the neck from families and analyzed by ICP/MS for metal content.

Findings: BD in newborn in 2010 were about 14.7% [2]. Data of reproductive history from 56 couples with child, overcoming the lack of previous data, shows pattern of increase in BD presentation since 1991. Information on parent's immediate kin in more than 1000 people, supports that BD are sporadic events. High residential stability of families allows to rule out local clusters for BD. Focus on load for ten teratogenic and carcinogenic metals (V, Cr, Co, As, Mo, Cd, W, U, Hg, Pb) in hair of 43 BD children and 103 their parents, and of 11 healthy newborns and 16 their parents, compared with that of 10 children and 8 adults controls outside the war area, shows that metal contamination is diffuse in the whole Fallujah population and is present already in newborn children hair. Absolute levels of major teratogenic and carcinogenic contaminants (V, Co, Mo, U and Pb) were significantly higher in Fallujah people than in controls from other areas, with Pb levels in BD children higher than other newborns in Fallujah.

Interpretation: Unusual high prevalence progressive in time and increased load of teratogenic metals even in new born hair are reported in Fallujah population. The extensive metal contamination persistent in people's hair in post-war environment and the composite metal load might be a major factor in the increase in time of stochastic events that lead to BD presentation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of D-Ribose-L-Cysteine on Lipid Profile, Atherogenic Index and Infertility in Streptozotocin-Induced Male Diabetic Wistar Rats

Abiodun Oluwabusola Adedeji, Patrick Kunle Orisadiran

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 11-22

Aims: The present study aimed at determining the effects of D-Ribose-L-Cysteine on lipid profile, atherogenic index, and infertility in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. 

Methods: A total of twenty-eight adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of seven rats each. 1: Normal control group, 2: Diabetic control group, 3: Normal rats treated with 30 mg/kg body weight of D-Ribose-L-cysteine, 4: Diabetic rats treated with 30 mg/kg body weight of D-Ribose-L-cysteine. Group 2 and 4 were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg in 0.1 M cold citrate buffer, pH 7.5) prior to D-Ribose-L-cysteine treatment. Group 4 were subsequently administered D-Ribose-L-cysteine orally 72 hours post administration of streptozotocin, twice daily for 28 days. Parameters tested include: fasting blood and serum glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, sperm motility, morphology and count. Testosterone (TT), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were also examined.

Results: The results showed that diabetic rats showed weights loss, increased MDA, increase blood and serum glucose levels, elevated lipid profile, altered TT, FSH and LH as well as reduced sperm count, motility and morphology. These effects were ameliorated in diabetic rats treated with D-Ribose-L-cysteine.

Conclusion: Current study revealed that D-Ribose-L-Cysteine attenuates the oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats on blood glucose, lipid profile, reproductive hormone and sperm parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Exercise on Some Haematological and Cellular Immune Markers in Male Athletes

K. U. Nwoke, F. S. Amah-Tariah, A. N. Chuemere

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 23-29

Due to conflicting reports on the impact of exercise on haematological and immunological indices, this study investigated the effects of exercise on some haematological and cellular immune markers in male athletes. Blood samples were collected from 86 apparently healthy male athletes before and after exercise training using standardized methods. Similarly, blood samples were obtained from 100 male non-athletes and served as control. Blood samples collected from athletes and non-athletes were subjected to experimental evaluation of some haematological and cellular immune biomarkers using standard techniques. Results showed that, with the exception of neutrophils that significantly increased after exercise in athletes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and clusters of differentiation counts significantly (p<0.05) decreased in athletes after exercise. Also, with the exception of platelets, other haematological parameters assayed in this study significantly (p<0.05) decreased in athletes after exercise.  However, there was no significant change in these parameters between athletes at rest and non-athletes. This study concludes that heavy training could lead to an open window of immunodepression leading to susceptibility to infection in athletes and non-athletes alike.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Syphilis and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection among Blood Donors Attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano-Nigeria

Khadijah Abdullahi Saleh, Yusuf Danasabe Jobbi, Ibrahim Yusuf, Umar Mustapha, Azeezat Bolanle Adetokun, Dauda Balarabe Musa, Danjuma Faiza Muhammad

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 30-38

Blood transfusion is an important component of patients management, as it saves millions of life each year, but it also serves as a vehicle for transmission of blood-pathogens such as hepatitis C virus and syphilis as a result World Health Organization has recommended that all blood samples should be screened for transfusion transmissible infections prior to transfusion. Therefore this was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and socio-demographic distribution of Hepatitis C virus and Syphilis among blood donors in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. This is a cross sectional study of blood donors presented at the donor clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano between July and September 2018. A total of 90 blood samples were collected from voluntary and family replacement donors, aged between 18-57 years, the collected samples were screened for anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies using a rapid diagnostic kits and were also screened for the presence of anti-HCV and anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. All of the total 90 (100%) donors screened were males. Family replacement and voluntary donors were of 76 (84.4%) and 14(15.6%) donors respectively. The overall seroprevalence of HCV and syphilis was 7.8% (5.6% and 2.2% for HCV and syphilis respectively using ELISA test). Prevalence of 1.3% was found for syphilis using a rapid diagnostic kit. Therefore critical screening of blood donors is of prime importance because they serve as an asymptomatic reservoir and a potential source of transmission of these infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Pilot Study on Pre-diabetes and Associated Central Obesity among Students of University of Guyana, Guyana

Dakari Jordan, Dacia Simpson, Rajini Kurup, Audrey Anderson, Cecil Boston

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 39-45

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of pre-diabetes and associated central obesity among sampled University of Guyana students.

Methods: The study was a cross sectional study where a questionnaire was distributed to each participant to assess predisposing risk factors. Anthropometric measurements like BMI and HbA1c were used to ascertain if the participant was overweight or obese. Nycocard® HbA1c test kit was used for collecting HbA1c. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0 to calculate descriptive statistics and analysis of variance were used to investigate the research questions. A p value of <0.05 was considered to be significant for all analysis.

Results: A total of seventy-four students were randomly selected for the study. The findings of this study revealed pre-diabetes incidence of 40.5% and a weak positive correlation between central obesity and pre-diabetes, with r-values of 0.25 (males), 0.27 (females) & 0.26 (overall).

Conclusion: There was a weak association between central obesity and pre-diabetes incidence. Therefore, a large follow up study would be important to understand association between pre-diabetes and central obesity and to create nationwide awareness or development of an operational policy/strategy/action plan to reduce overweight.