Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Post Exposure of Benzene on Some Hematology Parameters and DNA Lesions on Adult Wistar Rats

Orisadiran Patrick Kunle, Adedeji Adebayo Lawrence, Adedeji Abiodun Oluwabusola, AbdulRahman AbdulFatai

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-10

Aims: The study sought to investigate the effect of post-exposure of benzene on some haematology parameters and DNA lesions on adult wistar rats. 

 Methods: A total of twenty-eight rats were grouped into 4 groups, with group 1 serving as a control. The remaining 3 groups were interperitoneally administered 0.2 ml of benzene 48 hourly for 4 weeks and were left of 0, 3 and 6 weeks respectively before sacrifice.

Results: The result obtained showed that White Blood Cell (WBC), Red Blood Cell (RBC) and platelet counts were significantly reduced in benzene post exposed groups (p<0.05). 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine generation in liver and bone marrow were significantly higher in benzene post exposed groups. The photomicrograph of blood film of benzene exposed group showed promyelocyte and myeloblast.

Conclusion: It is concluded that benzene and its metabolite are highly toxic and are potentially damaging agents to the hematopoietic system. Evidence from our study suggested that elevated levels of 8-OHdG in liver and bone marrow compare to control would be a sign of increased oxidative stress, impaired antioxidant defence or inadequate repair of oxidative damaged DNA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Assessments of Cocos nucifera Linn. Water and Oil on Apparently Healthy Wistar Albino Rats

D. O. Akinjayeju, T. T. Adebolu

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-7

In this study, the effects of the consumption of Cocos nucifera L. water and oil on the haematological parameters of apparently healthy wistar albino rats were investigated using standard methods. The albino rats (n= 100) were divided into 8 groups (A-H) of 12 rats each while the remaining four rats were put in another group to serve as control. The first four groups(A-D) were daily orogastrically administered different volumes of coconut oil, 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml, 1.5 ml, 2.0 ml respectively for 4 weeks while groups E-H were daily orogastrically administered different volumes of coconut water, 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml, 1.5 ml, 2.0 ml respectively for four weeks. The control rats (Group l) however were not administered either coconut water or coconut oil. All the rats were allowed free access to rat chow and water. The administration of either of the coconut water or oil caused a significant increase (p≤0.05) in the PCV, WBC and the differential leukocytes counts within the four weeks of this study with coconut water having higher effect. It is conceivable that the consumption of either coconut water or coconut oil could exert both hematinic and immuno-stimulatory effects in the consumers to checkmate low PCV and also boost innate immunity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immunomodulatory Effects of Honey in Wistar Rats Infected with Salmonella typhimurium

Justinah F. John-Isa, Tinuola T. Adebolu, Victor O. Oyetayo

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-8

Aim: To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of honey on Wistar rats infected with Salmonella typhimurium.

Place and Duration of Study: Research laboratory of The Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA), Ondo State, Nigeria between July, 2019 and September, 2019.

Methodology: A total thirty – nine (39) apparently healthy Wistar rats, three (3) rats per group were used in this study. Twelve (12) out of the rats were used to determine the infectivity dose of S. typhimurium on the rats and twenty – seven (27) rats for infection and treatment assay. The rats were divided into nine (9) groups of 3 rats per group, the first 8 groups were infected with S. typhimurium and treated for seven (7) days with honey, augmentin and oral rehydration solution (ORS) (different treatment for different groups) except group 1 that was infected and not treated and group 9, that was not infected, not treated. The blood samples of all the rats was collected after treatment to study the effect of honey on the haematological parameters of the rats.

Results: Honey administered at 2ml and 3ml twice daily to the S. typhimurium infected rats exerted good therapeutic potential in combating diarrhoea in the animals. Also, in these group of rats, honey caused an increase in the PCV, RBC, HB and lymphocytes which displays honey to be a good immunostimulator and immunomodulator. 

Conclusion: Honey exerted therapeutic, haematinic and immunomodulatory potentials in rats infected with S. typhimurium. These findings therefore could be exploited in the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases caused by this bacterium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Asthma Severity and Serum Leptin Level in Obese Egyptian Children

Enas F. Elngar, Osama A. Zekry, Mamdouh M. Ali, Hassan A. Shora

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-8

Background: The relation between leptin and asthma is still unclear especially in obese children. We hypothesized that high serum leptin concentrations would also be associated with asthma in obese Egyptian children. We aimed to evaluate serum leptin concentrations in asthmatic obese and none obese children to investigate their association with asthma and degree of asthma severity.

Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 56 Children attended pediatric outpatient clinic of Suez Canal University hospital on Jan, 2016 to Dec 2016. They were divided into three groups (group 1) asthmatic obese children involved 16 child (group 2) asthmatic non- obese child; 20 (group 3) 20 non asthmatic child as control. Diagnosis of asthma was done according to global initiative of asthma. Serum leptin level was assessed in all study groups by ELISA.

Results: Serum leptin levels in obese asthmatic patients was 91.3±9.3 ng/ml ,while in non-obese asthmatics it was 87.8±5.6 ng/ml, finally in non-asthmatic control it was71.3±8.2  ng/ml (P value 0.175). There was positive significant correlation between serum leptin levels and asthma severity (p = <0.001). There was also significant negative association of leptin with peak expiratory flow rate results; There was also significant relation between serum leptin levels and history of allergy as well as family history of asthma (p = <0.001). There was significantly higher body mass index in asthmatics than non-asthmatics (p = 0.004). 

Conclusion: Leptin is playing an important role in assessment of asthma severity and is the most predictive factor for asthma severity when compared to body mass index, family history of asthma and history of allergy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) among HIV Patients Receiving Treatment in a Major HIV Care Unit in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

T. A. Olusi, M. B. Adediran, M. O. Oniya

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-11

There has been great improvement in the life expectancy for HIV patients since the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). However, good adherence to regimen is important to surmounting health problems associated with HIV/AIDS. While availability of drugs and accessibility to it are important, many other social, psychological and clinical factors needed to be considered. This cross- sectional study seeks to determine adherence to ART among 441 patients living with HIV and attending the State Specialist Hospital, Akure for treatment. The participants included more females (79.1%) while the remaining 20.9% were males. Majority of the participants were married (71.2%) and 73.0% of them earn less than ₦18000 (about US$52) monthly. Only 29.7% of them enrolled for ART less than six (6) months to the commencement of the study. Adherence in this study was found to be 56% and was significantly related to age (χ2 = 14.31, P = 0.03), marital status (χ2 = 9.47, P = 0.01), medication burden (χ2 = 9.07, P = 0.01) and “ART type” (χ2 = 19.09,  P = 0.00). The adherence rate (56%) recorded in the study is however low and underscores the need for measures necessary in ensuring total adherence among people living with HIV in Ondo State Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Study of Intestinal Parasites in School Children in Vandeikya LGA, Benue State, Nigeria

T. S. Atsuwe, V. U. Obisike, J. I. Chikwendu, C. K. Kondo, C. T. Tyoakoso, E. U. Amuta

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-8

A study was conducted to determine the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in school children in Vandeikya LGA, Benue State, Nigeria. Two hundred and ninety three (293) stool samples from school children were examined in selected schools across the Local Government Area. 22 of 293 children were infected with parasites which include: Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica, Hookworm, Strongyloides stercularis and Taenia spp. Hookworm had the highest prevalence rate of 9(3.1%), Entamoeba histolytica 7(2.3%), Taenia spp had 3(1.0%), Strongyloide stercolaris had 2(0.7%) while Ascaris lumbricoides recorded the least prevalence rate of 1(0.3%). For mixed infections, Entamoeba histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoides recorded the highest prevalence of 5(1.7%); Entamoeba histolytica, Hookworm and Strongyloides stercolaris recorded prevalence of 2(0.7%); and Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hookworm recorded prevalence of 2(0.7%); there was however, no significant difference (P>0.05) in prevalence of mixed infections. For prevalence based on age, there was significant difference (P<0.05) between the age groups, x2 calculated (10.117), x2 tabulated (4.891), df = 2. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the infection rate based on sex, x2 calculated (3.245), x2 tabulated (5.991), df = 2. Intestinal parasites are prevalent in Vandeikya LGA, Benue State. Risk factors like open defecation, use of stream and well water should be minimized in order to prevent infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interleukin-12 (P70) Concentrations in Malaria Patients Attending Some Hospitals in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Gideon Yakusak Benjamin, B. E. Moses, E. D. Jatau, C. M. Z. Whong

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-8

Background and Aim: Malaria is the most important parasitic disease of man, and it remains one of the major threats to public health and economic development in Africa. Interleukin-12 is a heterodimeric cytokine which has potent effects on innate and adaptive immunity.  This study was aimed at determining Interleukin-12 (p70) concentrations among malaria patients attending some hospitals in Zaria, Kaduna State.

Methods: A cross sectional hospital based study was conducted on consenting participants in Zaria. Four hundred blood samples were collected, from which Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films were prepared and examined for the presence of Plasmodium species by microscopy. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to determine concentrations of interleukin-12 (p70) in malaria positive samples and control samples.

Results: Males had higher malaria prevalence (37.2%) than females (24.7%). The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.01). Pregnant women had a prevalence of 17.8% which was lower than the 27.9% obtained in non-pregnant women (P = 0.07), and the highest malaria prevalence (20.0%) was found in pregnant women in their third trimester (P = 0.65). Interleukin-12 (p70) was present at a significantly (P = 0.00) higher level in the plasma of participants in the malaria positive group than in the control group (those who tested negative for malaria).

Conclusion: Gender was significantly associated with malaria in this study. The prevalence of malaria was higher in males than females; males are therefore encouraged to take more precautions to prevent malaria. Despite the fact that the exact role of cytokines in malaria pathogenesis is unclear, we can infer from the findings of this study that more interleukin-12 (p70) is produced during malaria infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria-related Anaemia among Children and Adolescents Attending General Hospitals in Obi and Oju Local Government Areas of Benue State

V. U. Obisike, O. J. Agbo, M. O. Ogbu, J. I. Chikwendu, E. U. Amuta

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-6

Anaemia is one of the leading complications due to malaria infections. It is defined in terms of packed cell volume (PCV) as a PCV <32%. This study was focused on the prevalence of malaria-related anaemia among children and adolescents attending General Hospital in Obi and Oju Local Government Areas of Benue State. Whole blood samples for malaria test were collected by fingertip pricking and vein punctured from a total of 738 children and adolescent patients that visited these hospitals between the months of October, 2015 to February, 2016. Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit (RDT) and haematocrit reader were used to determine malaria infections and PCV respectively. Those tested positive for malaria were 207 (106 and 101 for Obi and general hospitals respectively). Positive participants were further tested for anaemia and 73 (35.2%) were found anaemic. Distribution in the general hospitals were 34 (46.6%) and 39 (53.4%) for Obi and Oju respectively. October, 2015 had the highest prevalence. Amongst those anaemic females had a higher prevalence of 43 (58.9%) than males 30 (41.1%), (r=0.95). Also age group 0-5 years were most anaemic, 31 (53.4%), (P>0.05). Conclusively, the prevalence of malaria-related anaemia among children and adolescents attending these hospitals of the study areas was high. Reducing the prevalence of malaria should be prioritized by individuals and government.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis of Simarouba glauca Dc. and Comparison of its Bioactivity

Kiran R. Pawar, Ganesh B. Janavale, Sopan G. Wagh, Archana N. Panche, A. Abhijit Daspute, Manoj B. Pohare, Sanjay N. Harke

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-11

Medicinal implications of plants are well known to us since the time immemorial and are well documented in the ancient literature. According to WHO report, 80% of world populations count on herbal medicines to treat themselves in case of illness. And the main reason behind this could be the side effects caused by the drugs which are recommended now a days by the general practitioners. Herbal medicines are known to produce negligible amount of side effects and that is why they are among the favorite candidates for health care. In the present study, we have attempted to rediscover the medical potential of the Simarouba glauca. We have performed phytochemical analysis of Simarouba glauca and compared its bioactivities (antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, hemolytic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial)with synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Open Access Review Article

Therapeutic Potential of the Dual Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR)/ Agonist Aleglitazar in Attenuating TNF-mediated Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Human Adipocytes: A Review

Naser A. ElSawy

Asian Journal of Immunology, Page 1-11

Aleglitazar, is a novel promising drug, that related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα&γ) agonists which shows an ant-diabetic and anti-inflammatory characteristics. The goal of this study is to evaluate anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic properties of Aleglitazar in arthritis models induced in experimental animals and to conclude the comparative ulcerogenic potential of diclofenac in type 2 diabetes animals. The anti-inflammatory characteristics of Aleglitazar will be investigated in Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema as acute inflammation.

The Aim of the review: This study aims to assess anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of aleglitazar in arthritis models induced in experimental animals. It is to determine comparative ulcerogenic potential diclofenac in type 2 diabetic animals on gastric mucosa in rats.