Asian Journal of Immunology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of&nbsp;Immunology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AJI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> en-US (Asian Journal of Immunology) (Asian Journal of Immunology) Tue, 23 Feb 2021 12:51:50 +0000 OJS 60 Burden of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (TID) in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines from 2014-2018 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (TID), is a disease that has long been connoted to as insulin-dependent, childhood-onset, young adult-onset or juvenile onset diabetes with essential insulin deficiency that requires daily insulin administration with peak onset during puberty (10-15) years of age.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study was aimed at assessing the Burden of TID among diagnosed Autoimmune disease in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>From 2014 to 2018, individuals with Autoimmune, Immunological and Rare disease were identified from the hospital records of Milton Cato Memorial Hospital, which records information on all patient coming in for healthcare services. A structured data extraction tool was employed to extract the data from the hospital record using the open data kit (ODK). Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 and R Studio statistical software for analysis. The Chi-square test was used to test for association. All statistical tests were two-tailed and Level of Confidence was set at 95%, and P values &lt; 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of patient with Type 1 Diabetes was 26.58 ± 11.73 yrs. old and the median Age was 31 years. old, almost two-third 81(64.8%) were females. Yearly, women showed a significantly higher incidence of T1D than men, there was an annual decrease in the incidence from 2014 to 2018, with a peak incidence in 2014 (0.49/1000 person-years). There was an annual decrease in the incidence from 2014 to 2018, with a peak incidence in 2017 for male (0.40/1000 person-years) and in 2014 for females (0.69/1000 person-years). The lowest incidence was noted in 2018 (0.00/1000 person-years) and (0.08/1000 person-years) for both male and female respectively. There was increased mortality in people with T1D with a baseline of 3% in 2014 to 33% in 2018.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Sequel to the findings of this study, the incidence of autoimmune disease, Type 1 diabetes Mellitus have decreased in the last decade, whereas the mortality rates have increased. This finding of increased mortality of T1D suggests that this disease is no longer rare and will have implications for future healthcare planning.</p> Adedeji Okikiade, Ikeokwu Anderson, Olayinka Afolayan-Oloye, Olanrewaju Adeola O., Mane Paulpillai ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 23 Feb 2021 12:52:50 +0000 Prevalence and Risk Factor Determining Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease and Malignancy <p><strong>Background: </strong>A determine prevalence and identify risk factors of malignancy in autoimmune rheumatic diseases were important for raising awareness of the association between autoimmune rheumatic diseases and malignancy leading to more effective treatments.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>:</strong> To determine prevalence and risk factors of malignancy in autoimmune rheumatic diseases patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted on medical records of patients diagnosed with autoimmune rheumatic diseases and malignancy based on the ICD-10 coding system from January 1, 2013-May 31 2020, at a tertiary referral hospital in Bangkok.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>From records of patients diagnosed with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, most were patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (n=2,277), rheumatoid arthritis (n=530), spondyloarthritis (n=379), systemic sclerosis (n=290), dermato/ polymyositis (n = 108), Sjögren syndrome (n=95), and overlap syndrome (n=54). The overall prevalence rate of malignancy in autoimmune rheumatic diseases was 4.2%. Lung and breast were the most common sites. Types of autoimmune rheumatic diseases, age groups, comorbid, and medications were risk factors that could heighten malignancy risk in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Amongst types of autoimmune rheumatic diseases, demato/ polymyositis and rheumatoid arthritis were heighten risk of malignancy up to 3.88 and 2.60 times over systemic lupus erythematosus. Patients with over 60 years had the higher risk at 3.21 times over those age between 15-25 years. Comorbid disease brought 1.50 times higher risk. As cyclophosphamide, corticosteroids and methrotrexate, some medications increased the risk ranged between 2.79, 1.93 and 0.56 times, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Evidence confirmed the association of malignancy with all kinds of autoimmune rheumatic diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis and dermato/ polymyositis, at the highest risk. The study indicated an increased risk of malignancy among elders, patients with comorbid, and corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, and methrotrexate users.</p> Tasanee Kitumnuaypong, Kittiwan Sumethkul, Warangkana Pichaiwong ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Immune Thrombocytopenia Purpura among the Various Age Groups Patients Attending Jaypee Multi-super Speciality World Class Hospital Noida <p><strong>Background:</strong> Immune mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common manifestation of autoimmune disease in children. Although patients often present with bruises, petechiae, and some mucosal bleeding, the incidence of life-threatening hemorrhage is rare (0.2-0.9%) but can be fatal when presenting in vital organs.</p> <p><strong>Study Setting and Design:</strong> A facility based cross sectional study was conducted from May 2019 to January 2020 at Jaypee Multi-super Speciality World-class Hospital Laboratory Medicine, sector 128 Noida. This health facility is located in utter Pradesh (UP) in India and is a source of medical care for the underserved population. This research was designed to investigate immune thrombocytopenia purpura among 151 patients attending Jaypee Multi-Super Speciality World Class Hospital Noida.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The Complete Blood Count (CBC) was carried out using an automated analyzer (sysmex XN-1000).</p> <p>Coagulation Analysis procedure (Prothrombin Time (PT) Test and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) was carried out using a Coagulation Analyzer (Destiney plus).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The total subjects with Thrombocytopenia purpura in this research are 151 subjects, 100 (66.2%) are male and the remaining 51 (33.8%) were female respectively. Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura. Out of 151 subjects recruited for this study Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura was recorded 23 subjects (15.2%) in which 12 (7.95%) are male and 11(7.29%) were female. This result showed that, the 48 patients (31.8) of the subjects were having a Prothrombin Time (PT) value of less than 14.9 seconds while, the 103 patients (68.2) showed Prothrombin Time of greater than 14.9, the 14.9 was the normal range. Activated Partial Thrombin Time (APPT) of less than 23.0 seconds were recorded in 103 patients (68.2%) of the subjects while, Activated Partial Thrombin Time of greater than 23.0 seconds were recorded in 48 patients (31.8%) of the subjects. International Normalize Ratio (INR) of less than 1.1 were recorded in 43 patients (28.5%) of the subjects while, International Normalize Ratio of greater than 1.1 were recorded in 108 patients (71.5%) of the subjects.</p> Usman Salahuddeen Abdullahi, Mudassir Lawal, Jaya Bharti, Zainul Abidina Garba, Yusuf Yahaya Miya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 20 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000