Prevalence of Rubella Specific IgM Antibodies among Expectant Mothers in Two Tertiary Hospitals in Rivers state, Nigeria

Main Article Content

C. C. Adim
N. N. Odu
T. Sampson
L. O. Amadi
I. O. Okonko

Abstract

Aim: Rubella virus screening in pregnancy has not been recommended during antenatal clinic days in Nigeria and most African countries. However, Rubella virus has been widely accepted as one of the viral aetiology of congenital transmission. Circulation of Rubella virus in the environment would increase the risk of maternal infection and possibly, congenital rubella syndrome. This study aims to determine the population of pregnant women, who are anti-Rubella virus IgM seropositive, thus understanding the burden of acute Rubella infections circulating in Rivers State.

Methods: Two hundred and seventy sera from the pregnant women were screened by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Rubella virus IgM antibody. These pregnant women were attending antenatal clinics of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) and Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, both in Rivers State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect participants’ sociodemographic data.

Results: A total of 44 out of 270 (16.3%) subjects were anti- Rubella virus IgM positive and 226 out of 270 (83.7%) were negative. There was no significant difference between IgM seropositivity and age groups, education level, gestation stage and parity. However, there was a statistical association of seropositivity rates with respect to location and occupation.

Conclusion: Findings from our evaluation indicated that many pregnant women were anti-Rubella IgM seropositive, hence the cases of acute infection were relatively high. This condition poses danger to their unborn fetuses in the absence of appropriate preventive measures.

Keywords:
IgM antibody, rubella, pregnant women, seropositive, antenatal screening.

Article Details

How to Cite
Adim, C. C., Odu, N. N., Sampson, T., Amadi, L. O., & Okonko, I. O. (2020). Prevalence of Rubella Specific IgM Antibodies among Expectant Mothers in Two Tertiary Hospitals in Rivers state, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Immunology, 4(3), 6-13. Retrieved from https://journalaji.com/index.php/AJI/article/view/30135
Section
Original Research Article

References

Banatvala JE, Brown DW. Rubella. Lancet. 2004;363:1127–1137.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Control and prevention of rubella: evaluation and management of suspected outbreaks, rubella in pregnant women, and surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2001;50:1–30.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rubella. Immunology and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases - Pink Book, In Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. 2015;13: 325-340.

Banatvala JE. Clinical features: Post-natally acquired rubella. Perspt. Med. Virol. 2007;15:19-37.

Nathanson N, Moss WJ. Epidemiology. In: Field's Virology, Knipe DM, Howley PM. (Eds.). 6th Edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA; 2013.

Wong D. Rubella. Wong’s Virology; 2017. Avaialble:virol-online.com

Parkman P. Togaviruses: Rubella virus. In: Baron S, Editor. Med. Microbiol. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996.

Abernathy E, Cabezas C, Sun H, Zheng Q, Chen MH, Castillo-Solorzano C, et al. Confirmation of rubella within 4 days of rash onset: Comparison of rubella virus RNA detection in oral fluid with immunoglobulin M detection in serum or oral fluid. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2009;47:182–188.

Olajide OM, Aminu M, Randawa AJ, Adejo DS. Seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among pregnant women seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Int.l J. Women’s. Health. 2015;7: 75–83.

Wondimeneh Y, Tiruneh M, Ferede G, Aberab B, Workinehc M, Birhanied M, et al. Rubella virus infections and immune status among pregnant women before the introduction of rubella vaccine in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 2018;76:14-22.

Alleman MM, Wannemuehler KA, Hao L, Perelygina L, Icenogle JP, Vynnycky E, et al. Estimating the burden of rubella virus infection and congenital rubella syndrome through a rubella immunity assessment among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Potential impact on vaccination policy, Vaccine. 2016;34(51): 6502-6511.

Gilbert NL, Rotondo J, Shapiro J, Sherrard L, Fraser WD, Ward BJ. Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies and determinants of susceptibility to rubella in a cohort of pregnant women in Canada, 2008-2011. Vaccine. 2017;35(23):3050-3055.

Taku NA, Ndze VN, Abernathy E, Hao L, Waku-Kouomou D, Icenogle JP, et al. Seroprevalence of rubella virus antibodies among pregnant women in the Center and South-West regions of Cameroon. PloS One. 2019;14(11):225-594.

Ayensu I. Seroprevalence of rubella virus, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus–2 among pregnant women at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana. J. Pub. Health Dev. Ctries. 2014;1:56-63.

Mwambe B, Mirambo MM, Mshana SE. Sero-positivity rate of rubella and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Mwanza, Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2014;14:95.

Gubio AB, Olonitola S, Jattau E, Mukhtar MA. Seroprevalence of Rubella Virus among Pregnant Women in Kaduna State Nigeria 2015. Online J. Pub. Health Inform. 2017;9(1):185.

Oyinloye SO, Amama CA, Daniel R, Ajayi BB, Lawan MA. Seroprevalence survey of rubella antibodies among pregnant women in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Afri.J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol, 2014;14:1595-1689.

Pennap G, Amauche G, Ajoge H, Gabadi S, Agwale S, Forbi J. Serologic survey of specific rubella virus IgM in the sera of pregnant women in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Afr. J. Reprod. Health. 2009;13: 69-73.

Okonko BJ, Okonko IO, Makinde TS, Ogbu O. Prevalence of rubella virus IgM antibodies among pregnant women in Rivers State, Nigeria. Trends Appl. Sci. Res. 2019;14:288-295.

Adeyemi OO, Agbede OO, Kolawole MO, Okoh A. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of pregnant women attending the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital with regard to rubella. J. Fam. Rep. Health. 2012;(6)4:153-158.

Bamgboye AE, Afolabi KA, Esumeh FI, Enweani IB. Prevalence of rubella antibody in pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria. West Afr. J. Med. 2004;23(3):245-248.

Mehta NM, Thomas RM. Antenatal screening for rubella-infection or immunity? Br. Med. J. 2002;325:90-91.

Araoye MO. Data processing and analysis in research methodology with statistics for health and social sciences, 1st Edition. Nathadex Publishers Odo-Okon Sawmill, Ilorin. 2004;201-207.

Mirambo MM, Majigo M, Scana SD, Mushi MF, Aboud S, Groß U, et al. Rubella natural immunity among adolescent girls in Tanzania: The need to vaccinate childbearing aged women. BMC Women's Health. 2018;18(1):3.

Ogbonnaya EC, Chinedum EK, Amajor J, Amajor E. Survey of the seroprevalence of IgM antibodies in pregnant women infected with rubella virus. J. Biotech. Pharm. Res. 2012;3(1):10-14.

Tamirat B, Hussen S, Shimelis T. Rubella virus infection and associated factors among pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinics of public hospitals in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. Biomed. J. Open. 2017; 7(10):e016824.

Adewumi OM, Olasanya RB, Oladunjoye BA, Adeniji JA. Rubella IgG antibody among Nigerian pregnant women without vaccination history. African J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol. 2013;14(1):40-44.

Junaid SA, Akpan KJ, Olabode AO. Sero-survey of rubella IgM antibodies among children in Jos, Nigeria. Virol. J. 2011;8: 244.

Singla N, Jindal N, Aggarwal A. The seroepidemiology of Rubella in Amritsar (Punjab). Indian J. Med. Microbiol. 2004; 22(1):61-3.

Onakewhor JU, Chiwuzie J. Sero-prevalence survey of rubella infection in pregnancy at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Niger. J. Clin. Pract. 2011;14(2):140-145.

Agbede OO, Adeyemi OO, Olatinwo AW, Salisu TJ, Kolawole OM. Seroprevalence of antenatal rubella in University of Ibadan Teaching Hospital. Open Public Health J. 2011;4:10–16.

Fokunang CN, Chia J, Ndumbe P, Mbu P, Atashili J. Clinical studies on seroprevalence of rubella virus in pregnant women of Cameroon regions African J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol. 2010;11(2): 79–94.

Bukbuk DN, El Nafaty AU, Obed JY. Prevalence of rubella-specific IgG antibody in non-immunized pregnant women in Maiduguri, northeastern Nigeria. Cent. Eur. J. Public Health. 2002;10(1-2): 21-23.

Kolawole OM, Anjorin EO, Adekanle DA, Kolawole CF, Durowade KA. Sero-Prevalence of Rubella IgG Antibody in Pregnant Women in Osogbo, Nigeria. Int. J. Prev Med. 2014;5:287-292

Ganjooie T.A, Mohammadi MM. The prevalence of antibodies against rubella in pregnant women in Kerman, Iran. Saudi Med. J. l. 2003;24:1270 1.