Mechanism of Antiviral Immune Response and COVID-19 Infection
Asian Journal of Immunology,
Immune systems are responsible for the body’s protection against invading foreign agents that could bring harm to normal cellular activities. Viral infection is one of the significant foreign attacks on the body and the immune system has developed key mechanisms to contain such attack. The recent pandemic of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has stimulated studies on antiviral response with much emphasis on the Corona viruses. This disease caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) has been shown to have evolved with mechanisms to evade the normal immune responses. As such, this review therefore critically apprised recent literature on mechanisms of antiviral responses emphasizing on the Coronaviruses particularly the SARS-COV-2.The paper also highlighted the current situation regarding studies to find cure and vaccine development against the COVID-19.
- Corona virus
How to Cite
Zheng C, Chen J, Chu F, Zhu J, Jin T. Inflammatory role of TLR-MyD88 signaling in multiple sclerosis. Front. Mol. Neurosci. 2019;12:314.
Varga J, Bui-Marinos M, Katzenback B. Frog skin innate immune defences: Sensing and surviving pathogens. Front. Immunol. 2018;9:3128.
Kumar H, Kawai T, and Akira S. Pathogen recognition by the innate immune system. Int. Rev. Immunol. 2011;30(1):16–34.
Quaresma J. Organization of the skin immune system and compartmentalized immune responses in infectious diseases. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2019;32(4).
Chaplin D. Overview of the immune response. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2010;125(2):S3–S23.
Agrawal B. Heterologous immunity: Role in natural and vaccine-induced resistance to infections. Frontiers in Immunology. 2019;10:2631.
Yu JC. Innate immunity of neonates and Infants. Frontiers in Immunology. 2018;9:1759.
Ilatovskaya VD, Halade G, DeLeon-Pennell KY. Adaptive immunity-driven inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 2019; 317(6):H1254–H1257.
Larosa DF, Orange JS. 1. Lymphocytes. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2008;121(2):S364-9.
Wiendl H. Lymphocyte pharmacodynamics are not asso0ciated with autoimmunity or efficacy after alemtuzumab. Neurol. Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation. 2020;7 (1).
Wieczorek M. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II proteins: Conformational plasticity in antigen presentation. Front. Immunol. 2017;8:292.
Natarajan K. The role of molecular flexibility in antigen presentation and T cell receptor-mediated signaling. Front. Immunol. 2018;9:1657.
Yam-Puc JC, Zhang L, Zhang Y, and Toellner KM. Role of B-cell receptors for B-cell development and antigen-induced differentiation. F1000Research. 2018;7: 429.
Chang MH, Nigrovic PA. Antibody-dependent and independent mechanisms of inflammatory arthritis. JCI insight. 2019;4 (5):e125278.
Belkaid Y, Hand TW. Role of the microbiota in immunity and inflammation. Cell. 2014; 157(1):121–141.
Kumar BV, Connors TJ, Farber DL. Human T cell development, localization, function throughout life. Immunity. 2018;48(2):202–213.
Sarrafzadeh O, Dehnavi AH, Banaem HY, Talebi A, and Gharibi A. The best texture features for leukocytes recognition. J. Med. Signals Sens. 2017;7(4):220–227.
Yamamoto M. Quantitative distinction of morphological characteristics of white blood cells in peripheral blood through texture analysis using gray level co-occurrence matrix. Clin. Lab. 2017;63(11):1851–1868.
Rajamanickam A, Munisankar S, Bhootra Y, Dolla CK, Nutman TB, Babu S. Elevated systemic levels of eosinophil, neutrophil, and mast cell granular proteins in strongyloides stercoralis infection that diminish following treatment. Front. Immunol. 2018;9:207.
Caminati M, Bagnasco D, Vaia R, Senna G. New horizons for the treatment of severe, eosinophilic asthma: Benralizumab, a novel precision biologic. Biologics. 2019;13:89–95.
Prinyakupt J, Pluempitiwiriyawej C. Segmentation of white blood cells and comparison of cell morphology by linear and naïve Bayes classifiers. Biomed. Eng. Online. 2015;14:63.
Germic N, Frangez Z, Yousefi S, Simon HU. Regulation of the innate immune system by autophagy: Monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and antigen presentation. Cell Death Differ. 2019;26(4) :715–727.
Hong R. Distinct roles of BCNP1 in B-cell development and activation. Int. Immunol. 2020;32(1):17–26.
Allan GM, Arroll B. Prevention and treatment of the common cold: Making sense of the evidence. CMAJ. 2014;186(3):190–199.
Roh JS, Sohn DH. Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Inflammatory Diseases. Immune Netw. 2018;18(4):e27–e27.
Mukherjee S, Huda S, Sinha Babu SP. Toll-like receptor polymorphism in host immune response to infectious diseases: A review. Scand. J. Immunol. 2019;90(1): e12771.
Fehr AH, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. Methods Mol. Biol. 2015; 1282:1–23.
Dong H. Characterization of an Immunodominant Epitope in the Endodomain of the Coronavirus Membrane Protein. Viruses. 2016;8(12):327.
Guo YR. The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak - An update on the status. Mil. Med. Res. 2020;7(1):11.
Weiss SR, Navas-Martin S. Coronavirus pathogenesis and the emerging pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 2005;69(4):635–664.
Enjuanes L, Zuñiga S, Castaño-Rodriguez C, Gutierrez-Alvarez J, Canton J, Sola I. Molecular basis of coronavirus virulence and vaccine development. Adv. Virus Res. 2016; 96:245–286.
Song Z. From SARS to MERS, Thrusting coronaviruses into the spotlight. Viruses. 2019;11(1).
Wang W. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens. JAMA; 2020.
Lee KI, Wang CC, Lin MC, Kung CT, Lan KC, Lee CT. Effective strategies to prevent coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in hospital. The Journal of hospital infection. England; 2020.
Ebenso B, Out A. Can Nigeria contain the COVID-19 outbreak using lessons from recent epidemics?,” The Lancet. Global health. England; 2020.
Raoult D, Zumla A, Locatelli F, Ippolito G, Kroemer G. Coronavirus infections: Epidemiological, clinical and immunological features and hypotheses. Cell Stress; 2020.
Graham RL, Sparks JS, Eckerle LD, Sims AC, and Denison MR. SARS coronavirus replicase proteins in pathogenesis. Virus Res. 2008;133(1):88–100.
Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Biosci. Trends. 2020;14(1):72– 73.
Welch MD. Why should cell biologists study microbial pathogens? Mol. Biol. Cell. 2015;26(2):4295–4301.
World Health Organization. COVID-19 Pandemic Update. Situation report; 2020.
(Access date: 21st March, 2020)
Centre for Disease Control. Coronavirus disease-19. How to protect yourself; 2020.
Available:https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fprepare%2Fprevention.html (Access date: 20th March,2020)
Abstract View: 1958 times
PDF Download: 1085 times