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Over recent years stem cells have stood out as a promising tool for regenerative medicine, providing alternative therapeutic solutions for many non-communicable diseases. Many clinical trials using stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells are focused on the refit and regeneration of various tissues and organs in degenerative diseases, whose current treatment only succeeds in delay down the progression of the disease. This review summarizes several current clinical and nonclinical information on the use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in various diseases. The aim of this review was to expand on the background and therapeutic potential of ESCs, MSCs and IPSCs whilst linking this to their use within disease therapy with a specific focus on diabetes, kidney disease and cardiovascular disease with future possibilities and challenges. Also aimed to explain the benefits of transplantation with side effects shortly after transplant and later and interruptions, possibilities and challenges of transplantation.
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